AP Physics Chapter 1 Study Guide

The Science of Physics

 

Fundamental Units

 

SI Standard Units

Unit Standard Unit Symbol
Meter (length) distance traveled by light in a vacuum in meter m
Kilogram (mass) mass of a specific platinum-iridium alloy cylinder kg
Second (time) 9192631700 times the period of a radio wave emitted from a cesium-133 atom s

 

Derived Units-combination of fundamental units, for example velocity is meters/second.

Factor
Prefix
Symbol
equation
yotta-
Y
equation
zetta-
Z
equation
exa-
E
equation
peta-
P
equation
tera-
T
equation
giga-
G
equation
mega-
M
equation
kilo-
k
equation
hecto-
h
equation
deka-
da
equation
deci-
d
equation
centi-
c
equation
milli-
m
equation
micro-
µ
equation
nano-
n
equation
pico-
p
equation
femto-
f
equation
atto-
a
equation
zepto-
z
equation
yocto-
y

The prefix's in bold are the most common in Physics Class.

 

Changing Measurements (Factor Label Method)

Example 1
The research submersible vessel ALVIN is diving at a speed of 36.5 fathoms per minute.
(a) Express this speed in meters per second. A fathom (fath) is precisely 6 ft.

 

(b) What is this speed in miles per hour?

 

 

Example 2
How many square meters are in an area of speed ?

 

 

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensions of Some Common Physical Quantities
Quantity
Dimension
Distance
distance
Area
area
Volume
volume
Velocity
velocity
Acceleration
acceleration
Energy
energy

 

Example 3
Show that ex3 is dimensionally consistent. The quantities x and xnot are distances, vnot is a velocity, and a is an acceleration.

 

 

 

Four Fundamental Forces

The Four Fundamental Forces
Force
Couples with
Strength
Range
Strong Quarks and Particles composed of them
strong
strong
Electromagnetic Electrically charged particles
electromagnetic
Unlimited
Weak Most Particles
weak
weak
Gravitational All particles
gravity
Unlimited

 

Significant Digits

Rules for determining whether zeros are significant figures

1. Zeros between other nonzero digits are significant.

2. Zeros in front of nonzero digits are not significant.

3. Zeros that are at the end of a number and also to the right of the decimal point are significant.

4. Zeros at the end of a number but to the left of a decimal are significant if they have been measured or are the first estimated digit; otherwise, they are not significant.

 

Rules for calculating with significant figures

Type of Calculation
Rule
Addition or Subtraction The final answer should have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal as the measurement with the smallest number of digits to the right of the decimal.
Multiplication or Division The final answer has the same number of significant figures as the measurement having the smallest number of significant figures.

 

Mathematics in Physics

In Physics we use many different areas of mathematics, from simple addition and subtractions to derivatives and integrals. Most of the math starts with data and graphs.

graph

 

graph

 

graph

 

graph

 

graph

 

Soccer Video #1

Soccer Video #2