The Atomic Model of Matter

Three Phases of Matter

**Gas** – A gas is a state of matter, consisting of a collection
of particles (molecules, atoms, ions, electrons, etc.) without a definite
shape or volume that are in more or less random motion.

**Liquid** – A liquid is a fluid that has the particles loose
and can freely form a distinct surface at the boundaries of its bulk material.

**Solid** – A solid object is in the states of matter characterized
by resistance to deformation and changes of volume.

**Atomic Mass Number** (A) – the sum of the
number of protons and neutrons.

**Atomic Mass **– the mass of an atom of a chemical
element expressed in atomic mass units

**Molecular Mass** – the sum of the atomic masses
of the atoms forming the molecule.

**Mole** – The mole is defined as the amount
of substance of a system which contains as many "elemental entities" (e.g.,
atoms, molecules, ions, electrons) as there are atoms in 12 g of carbon-12.

**Avegadro's Number** –

Moles of a substance in terms of the number of basic particles.

Moles of a substance in terms of its mass.

Thermal Expansion

Volume thermal expansion

Linear thermal expansion

**Example 1**

When rod 1 is heated by an
amount ,
its length increases by .
If rod 2, which is twice as long as rod 1 and made of the same material,
is heated by the same amount, does its length increase by **(a)**, **(b)** ,
or **(c)**?

**Example 2**

The Eiffel Tower, constructed in 1889 by Alexandre Eiffel, is an impressive latticework structure made of iron. If the tower is 301 m high on a 22°C day, how much does its height decrease when the temperature cools to 0.0°C?

**Example 3**

A washer has a hole in the
middle. As the washer is heated, does the hole **(a)** expand, **(b)** shrink,
or **(c)** stay the same?

**Example 4**

A copper flask with a volume of is filled to the brim with olive oil. If the temperature of the system is increased from 6.0°C to 31°C, how much oil spills from the flask? ()

Pressure and the Kinetic Theory of an Ideal Gas

Temperature

Pressure

Definition of pressure in a gas as the force-to-area ratio.

Measuring Pressure

1 standard atmosphere = 1 atm = 101300 Pa = 101.3 kPa

1 atm = 14.7 psi

**Gauge pressure** – Gauge pressure is the pressure
relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.

Ideal-Gas Law

**Example 5**

A person's lungs might hold 6.0 L of air at body temperature (310 K) and atmospheric pressure (101 kPa). Given that the air is 21% oxygen, find the number of oxygen molecules in the lungs.

**Example 6**

Feeling a bit
cool, you turn up the thermostat in your house or apartment. A short
time later the air is warmer. Assuming the room is well sealed, is the
pressure of the air **(a)** greater than, **(b)** less
than, or **(c)** the same as before you turned up the heat?

**Example 7**

A cylindrical flask of cross-sectional area A is fitted with an airtight piston that is free to slide up and down. Contained within the flask is an ideal gas. Initially the pressure applied by the piston is 130 kPa and the height of the piston above the base of the flask is 25 cm. When additional mass is added to the piston, the pressure increases to 170 kPa. Assuming the system is always at the temperature 290 K, find the new height of the piston.

**Example 8**

Consider again the system in the previous example. In this case the temperature is changed from an initial value of 290 K to a final value of 330 K. The pressure exerted on the gas remains constant at 130 kPa, and the initial height of the piston is 25 cm. Find the final height of the piston.

**Example 9**

A cylinder contains 12 L of oxygen at 20°C and 15 atm. The temperature is raised to 35°C, and the volume is reduced to 8.5 L. What is the final pressure of the gas in atmospheres? Assume that the gas is ideal.

Ideal-Gas Processes

Properties

1. The quantity of gas is fixed.

2. There is a well-defined initial state.

3. There is a well-defined final state.

pV Diagrams

**Constant-Volume Processes (isovolumic)**

A constant-volume process appears on a pV diagram as a vertical line.

**Constant-Pressure Processes (isobaric)**

A constant-pressure process appears on a pV diagram as a horizontal line.

**Constant-Temperature Process (isothermal)**

A constant-temperature process appears on a pV diagram as a hyperbola.

**Adiabatic Processes**

A process in which no heat energy is transferred between the gas and the environment. (Q = 0)

**Work**

A few things about work and pV diagrams

1. In order for a gas to do work, the volume
must change. Thus **no work** is done in a constant-volume process.

2. The work done by a gas is positive when the gas expands, but negative when the gas is compressed.

3. For any ideal-gas process, you must use the geometry of the pV diagram to calculate the area under the graph.

4. To calculate work, pressure must be in Pa and volume in .

5. First Law of Thermodynamics ()

**Example 10**

A gas with a constant pressure of 150 kPa expands from a volume of to a volume of . How much work does the gas do?

**Example 11**

A gas expands from an initial volume of to a final volume of as the pressure increases linearly from 110 kPa to 230 kPa. Find the work done by the gas.

**Example 12**

A cylinder holds 0.50 mol of a monatomic ideal gas at a temperature of 310 K. As the gas expands isothermally from an initial volume of to a final volume of , determine the amount of heat that must be added to the gas to maintain a constant temperature.

**Example 13**

When a certain gas is compressed adiabatically, the amount of work done on it is 640 J. Find the change in internal energy of the gas.

Specific Heat and Heat of Transformation

Specific Heat (c) – the heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of a substance one degree kelvin.

Heat needed to produce a temperture change for mass M with specific heat c.

**Example 14**

The heat capacity
of 1.00 kg of water is 4186 J/K. What is the temperature change of the
water if **(a)** 505 J of heat is added to the system, or **(b)** 1010
J of heat is removed?

Phase Changes

Phase Diagram

Heat of Transformation

Heat of fusion

Heat of vaporization

Heat Engines

Carnot Cycle

An isothermal expansion during which an amount of heat enters the system going from A to C.

An isothermal compression back to A where heat is ejected from the system.

**Heat Engine**:

A heat engine is a cyclic device that converts thermal energy into work-out.

Examples of heat engines are the gasoline and the diesel engines.

Gasoline engine

Diesel engine

The Carnot Cycle is a four-stage reversible sequence:

1. isothermal expansion (from A to B) with the reception of heat in () at a constant high temperature

2. adiabatic expansion (from B to C)

3. isothermal compression (from C to D) with the rejection of heat out () at a low temperature

4. adiabatic compression (from D to A).

Carnot Cycle

Carnot Cycle