Physics Chapter 1 Study Guide

The Science of Physics

 

Branches of Physics

Branches of Physics

 

Physics of Car

 

 

Fundamental Units

A system of fundamental units is such that every other unit can be generated from them. The kilogram, meter, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela are the fundamental units of the SI system of units, termed SI base units.

 

SI Standards

Units Standard Unit Symbol
Meter (length) distance traveled by light in a vacuum in Figure
m
Kilogram (mass) mass of a specific platinum-iridium alloy cylinder
kg
Second (time) 9192631700 times the period of a radio wave emitted from a cesium-133 atom
s

 

Derived Units-combination of fundamental units, for example velocity is meters/second.

 

 

FigureFigureFigure

 

 

Link to the National Institute of Science and Technology

 

Factor
Prefix
Symbol
Figure
yotta-
Y
Figure
zetta-
Z
Figure
exa-
E
Figure
peta-
P
Figure
tera-
T
Figure
giga-
G
Figure
mega-
M
Figure
kilo-
k
FIgure
hecto-
h
Figure
deka-
da
Figure
deci-
d
Figure
centi-
c
Figure
milli-
m
Figure
micro-
µ
Figure
nano-
n
Figure
pico-
p
Figure
femto-
f
Figure
atto-
a
Figure
zepto-
z
Figure
yocto-
y

The prefix's in bold are the most common in Physics Class.

 

 

Changing Measurements (Factor Label Method)

Example 1
When, according to legend, Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens in 490 B.C. to bring word of the Greek victory over the Persians, he probably ran at a speed of about 23 rides per hour (rides/h). The ride is an ancient Greek unit of length, as are the stadium and the plethron: 1 ride was defined to be 4 stadia, 1 stadium was defined to be 6 plethra, and, in terms of a modern unit, 1 plethron is 30.8 m. How fast did Pheidippides run in kilometers per second (km/s)?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Example 2
How many square meters are in an area of Figure ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Example 3

The cran is a British volume unit for freshly caught herrings: 1 cran = 170.474 liters (L) of fish, about 750 herrings. Suppose that, to be cleared through customs in Saudi Arabia, a shipment of 1255 crans must be declared in terms of cubic covidos, where the covido is an Arabic unit of length: 1 covido = 48.26 cm. What is the required declaration?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dimensional Analysis

Dimensions of Some Common Physical Quantities
Quantity
Dimension
Distance
Figure
Area
Figure
Volume
Figure
Velocity
Figure
Acceleration
Figure
Energy
Figure

 

 

Example 4
Show that Figure is dimensionally consistent. The quantities x and Figure are distances, Figure is a velocity, and a is an acceleration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Four Fundamental Forces

The Four Fundamental Forces
Force
Couples with
Strength
Range
Strong Quarks and Particles composed of them
Figure
Figure
Electromagnetic Electrically charged particles
Figure
Unlimited
Weak Most Particles
Figure
Figure
Gravitational All particles
Figure
Unlimited

 

 

Significant Digits

significant digits

 

 

 

Rules for calculating with significant figures

Calculating with Signoficant Digits

 

 

Rounding Rules

Rounding Rules

 

 

 

Parallax

Parallax-Also in non-optical measurements the thickness of a ruler can create parallax in fine measurements. One is always cautioned in science classes to "avoid parallax." By this it is meant that one should always take measurements with one's eye on a line directly perpendicular to the ruler, so that the thickness of the ruler does not create error in positioning for fine measurements.

 

 

Mathematics in Physics

In Physics we use many different areas of mathematics, from simple addition and subtractions to derivatives and integrals. Most of the math starts with data and graphs.

Figure

 

Figure

 

Figure

 

Figure

 

Figure

 

Soccer Video #1

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