Physics Chapter 1 Study Guide

The Science of Physics

Branches of Physics

Fundamental Units

A system of fundamental units is such that every other unit can be generated from them. The kilogram, meter, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela are the fundamental units of the SI system of units, termed SI base units.

SI Standards

 Units Standard Unit Symbol Meter (length) distance traveled by light in a vacuum in m Kilogram (mass) mass of a specific platinum-iridium alloy cylinder kg Second (time) 9192631700 times the period of a radio wave emitted from a cesium-133 atom s

Derived Units-combination of fundamental units, for example velocity is meters/second.

 Factor Prefix Symbol yotta- Y zetta- Z exa- E peta- P tera- T giga- G mega- M kilo- k hecto- h deka- da deci- d centi- c milli- m micro- µ nano- n pico- p femto- f atto- a zepto- z yocto- y

The prefix's in bold are the most common in Physics Class.

Changing Measurements (Factor Label Method)

Example 1
When, according to legend, Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens in 490 B.C. to bring word of the Greek victory over the Persians, he probably ran at a speed of about 23 rides per hour (rides/h). The ride is an ancient Greek unit of length, as are the stadium and the plethron: 1 ride was defined to be 4 stadia, 1 stadium was defined to be 6 plethra, and, in terms of a modern unit, 1 plethron is 30.8 m. How fast did Pheidippides run in kilometers per second (km/s)?

Example 2
How many square meters are in an area of ?

Example 3

The cran is a British volume unit for freshly caught herrings: 1 cran = 170.474 liters (L) of fish, about 750 herrings. Suppose that, to be cleared through customs in Saudi Arabia, a shipment of 1255 crans must be declared in terms of cubic covidos, where the covido is an Arabic unit of length: 1 covido = 48.26 cm. What is the required declaration?

Dimensional Analysis

 Dimensions of Some Common Physical Quantities Quantity Dimension Distance Area Volume Velocity Acceleration Energy

Example 4
Show that is dimensionally consistent. The quantities x and are distances, is a velocity, and a is an acceleration.

Four Fundamental Forces

 The Four Fundamental Forces Force Couples with Strength Range Strong Quarks and Particles composed of them Electromagnetic Electrically charged particles Unlimited Weak Most Particles Gravitational All particles Unlimited

Significant Digits

Rules for calculating with significant figures

Rounding Rules

Parallax

Parallax-Also in non-optical measurements the thickness of a ruler can create parallax in fine measurements. One is always cautioned in science classes to "avoid parallax." By this it is meant that one should always take measurements with one's eye on a line directly perpendicular to the ruler, so that the thickness of the ruler does not create error in positioning for fine measurements.

Mathematics in Physics

In Physics we use many different areas of mathematics, from simple addition and subtractions to derivatives and integrals. Most of the math starts with data and graphs.

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