Physics Chapter 1 Study Guide
The Science of Physics
Fundamental Units
A system of fundamental units is such that every other unit can be generated from them. The kilogram, meter, second, ampere, kelvin, mole and candela are the fundamental units of the SI system of units, termed SI base units.
SI Standards
Units  Standard  Unit Symbol 
Meter (length)  distance traveled by light in a vacuum in  m 
Kilogram (mass)  mass of a specific platinumiridium alloy cylinder  kg 
Second (time)  9192631700 times the period of a radio wave emitted from a cesium133 atom  s 
Derived Unitscombination of fundamental units, for example velocity is meters/second.
Link to the National Institute of Science and Technology
Factor 
Prefix 
Symbol 
yotta 
Y 

zetta 
Z 

exa 
E 

peta 
P 

tera 
T 

giga 
G 

mega 
M 

kilo 
k 

hecto 
h 

deka 
da 

deci 
d 

centi 
c 

milli 
m 

micro 
µ 

nano 
n 

pico 
p 

femto 
f 

atto 
a 

zepto 
z 

yocto 
y 
The prefix's in bold are the most common in Physics Class.
Changing Measurements (Factor Label Method)
Example 1
When, according to legend, Pheidippides
ran from Marathon to Athens in 490 B.C. to bring word of the Greek victory
over the Persians, he probably ran at a speed of about 23 rides per hour
(rides/h). The ride is an ancient Greek unit of length, as are the stadium
and the plethron: 1 ride was defined to be 4 stadia, 1 stadium was defined
to be 6 plethra, and, in terms of a modern unit, 1 plethron is 30.8 m. How
fast did Pheidippides run in kilometers per second (km/s)?
Example 2
How many square meters are in an area of ?
Example 3
The cran is a British volume unit for freshly caught herrings: 1 cran = 170.474 liters (L) of fish, about 750 herrings. Suppose that, to be cleared through customs in Saudi Arabia, a shipment of 1255 crans must be declared in terms of cubic covidos, where the covido is an Arabic unit of length: 1 covido = 48.26 cm. What is the required declaration?
Dimensions of Some
Common Physical Quantities 

Quantity 
Dimension 
Distance  
Area  
Volume  
Velocity  
Acceleration  
Energy 
Example 4
Show that is
dimensionally consistent. The quantities x and are
distances, is
a velocity, and a is an acceleration.
Four Fundamental Forces
The Four Fundamental
Forces 

Force  Couples with 
Strength 
Range 
Strong  Quarks and Particles composed of them  
Electromagnetic  Electrically charged particles  Unlimited  
Weak  Most Particles  
Gravitational  All particles  Unlimited 
Rules for calculating with significant figures
ParallaxAlso in nonoptical measurements the thickness of a ruler can create parallax in fine measurements. One is always cautioned in science classes to "avoid parallax." By this it is meant that one should always take measurements with one's eye on a line directly perpendicular to the ruler, so that the thickness of the ruler does not create error in positioning for fine measurements.
In Physics we use many different areas of mathematics, from simple addition and subtractions to derivatives and integrals. Most of the math starts with data and graphs.